Along with the proclamation of the independence of the Republic of Latvia on 18 November 1918, the establishment of intelligence and security services was necessary. On 11 August 1919, the first counterintelligence and internal security service – the State Security Department was established.
On 1 November 1919, during the warfare in the country, the State Security Department was disbanded and a great number of the officers were dislocated to the Intelligence Unit of the Latvian Army. At that time, 5th (political) Department of the Criminal Police was established, which took over the functions of the State Security Department.
After the end of the warfare, the system of intelligence and security services in Latvia kept being developed. It resulted in establishing the Political Security Department on 2 October 1920, which took over the functions of 5th (political) Department of the Criminal Police and partially the ones of the Intelligence Unit of Latvian Army. In May 1924, Political Security Department changed its name to Political Department. However, in June 1939 it was changed to Political Police Department, which was operational until June 1940 and had the function of counterintelligence and internal security service. After the USSR occupation in 1940, more than 90% of the officers of Latvian intelligence and security services were killed or died in the prisons of the Soviet Union.
After the restoration of the statehood, in 1991 the re-establishment of the system of the intelligence and security services was initiated. In 1991, the Information Department responsible for intelligence and counterintelligence activities was established. In parallel, the Security Service of the Republic of Latvia and the Dignitary Protection Service were established in order to protect the newly established government of Latvia.
In 1993, by uniting the Information Department of the Ministry of Interior and the Dignitary Protection Service, the National Economic Sovereignty Protection Department was established. The establishment of the department was a short-term solution to the crucial challenges at that time.
In 1994, the Law on Intelligence and Security Services was adopted which stipulated the intelligence community and its legal framework. As a result, the National Economic Sovereignty Protection Department was reorganized and Latvian Security Police was established. With amendments to the Law on State Security Institutions adopted in 2018, since 1 January 2019, the Security Police has been renamed the Latvian State Security Service.